Morphology of Giardia lamblia

Giardia Morphology - Stanford Universit

G. lamblia has two morphological stages: the trophozoite and the cyst. The trophozoite is pear shaped, with a broad anterior and much attenuated posterior (9) . It is 10-12µm long and 5-7µm wide, bilaterally symmetrical, and has two nuclei Giardia lamblia is a flagellated, microaerophilic microorganism, first discovered by Van Leeuwenhoek in 1681, who found it in his own diarrheal stool. The G. lamblia trophozoite, vegetative, motile form of G. lamblia is pear-shaped and have unique morphology such as two identical nuclei, a ventral disc for adhesion to the host intestine, and flagella [see also #Trophozoite Structure ]

Giardia lamblia - microbewik

Morphology of Giardia lamblia 1. Morphology of Trophozoite. Shape: It has a pear-like shape. Nuclei: It contains two nuclei, one on each side of the body; Flagella: It has four pairs of flagella, which help in locomotion. Sucking Disc: It has a circular sucking disc, which is situated on the ventral surface. Giardia attaches to the intestinal wall with the help of this sucking disc. 2 Giardia lamblia (Giardia intestinalis, Giardia duodenalis) : Morphology, Life Cycle, Cyst, Diseases, Symptoms, & Treatment. Giardia lamblia (Giardia intestinalis, Giardia duodenalis) is a flagellate protozoan. It is the most common intestinal protozoan pathogen. Giardia lamblia lives in the duodenum and upper jejunum and is the only protozoan. Giardia cyst-like objects detected by immunofluorescence in chlorinated water samples often cannot be positively identified by their morphological appearance. To determine the effect of chlorine on cyst immunofluorescence and morphology, Giardia lamblia cysts were exposed to chlorine for 48 h. The majority of cysts exposed to chlorine concentrations of 1 to 11 mg/liter at 5 and 15 degrees C. Giardia: Morphology, Biology sequences, G. lamblia is proposed as one of the most ancient eukaryote, along with T. vaginalis and the microsporidia (Sogin ML., et al., 1989). Table 2. Hosts and morphology of different Giardia species (compiled from Adam RD., 2001). Species Host Organisms Morphological features noted by Light microscopy Morphologica Giardia lamblia is also known as: Giardia intestinalis or Lamblia intestinalis and Giardia duodenalis. Geographical distribution: It is cosmopolitan in distribution (Worldwide) and most common in warm climates. Habitat: Duodenum and the upper part of jejunum of man. Morphology. Giardia lamblia has two forms , cyst and trophozoite. Cyst Oval shape

G. lamblia is pear shaped and has one or two transverse, claw-shaped median bodies; G. agilis is long and slender (100) and has a teardrop-shaped median body; and the G. muri Cyst and trophozoite of Giardia lamblia showing encystation-excystation cycle; Morphology: Exists in two form Cyst: Oval cyst is thick-walled with four nuclei and several internal fibers. Each cyst gives rise to two trophozoites during excystation in the intestinal tract The vegetative type or Trophozoite of Giardia lamblia is rounded anteriorly and pointed at a range of about 15 μm, 9 μm and 4 μm. It has been defined as pyriform, core or racket-shaped in various ways


Giardia is a fact flagellated protozoan parasite that infected the upper intestinal tract of human and many animal species, G. lamblia has two stages -Trophozoite and Cyst (Khalil et al., 2014).. Giardia duodenalis, also known as Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia, is a flagellated parasitic microorganism, that colonizes and reproduces in the small intestine, causing a diarrheal condition known as giardiasis. The parasite attaches to the epithelium by a ventral adhesive disc or sucker, and reproduces via binary fission

In this article we will discuss about the structure of giardia lamblia. This will also help you to draw the structure and diagram of giardia lamblia. Giardia lamblia (also known as G. intestinalis) lives as a flagellate parasite in the small intestine of man. It causes a disease called giardiasis which causes digestive disturbances Giardia cysts. Giardia cysts. Giardia lamblia (CDC:0284:1) and Giardia muris cysts were harvested from Mongolian gerbils (2) and mice (5), respectively, by centrifugation of sieved and washed fecal slurry over 1.0 Msucrose. The cysts were purified as previouslydescribed (7), stored at 4°Cin distilled water, and used for experiments within 2.

Giardia is a genus consisting of a number of flagellated species with similar morphological characteristics. Members of this genus can be found in various environments (water, soil etc) and are responsible for giardiasis (a diarrheal illness) in both human beings and other vertebrates Giardia lamblia (syn.Giardia intestinalis, Giardia duodenalis) is a flagellated unicellular eukaryotic microorganism that commonly causes diarrheal disease throughout the world.It is the most common cause of waterborne outbreaks of diarrhea in the United States and is occasionally seen as a cause of food-borne diarrhea (47a, 227).In developing countries, there is a very high prevalence and. Giardia lamblia Morphology of Trophozoite stage: Average size 15 X 8 µ Pear shaped (broad anteriorly -tapering posteriorly) Convex dorsally -flat ventrally with bilobed anterior concavity (sucking discs) for attachment. Motility by 4 pairs of flagellae (similar to a falling leaf) Two oval nuclei with central karyosome.. Hey friends I'm medical laboratory scientist.This video has information about giardia lamblia trophozoite morphology - identification training. Key words- gi.. Morphology Cysts. R outine stool examinations we investigated the effects of Ocimum basilicum essential oil on Giardia lamblia and on the modulation of the interaction of these parasites by.

Free picture: ultrastructural, morphology, giardia

Giardia lamblia types,life cycle,treatment, diagnosis prevention Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website 1. Parasitol Res. 2010 Jul;107(2):369-75. doi: 10.1007/s00436-010-1872-4. Epub 2010 Apr 27. The effects of dihydroartemisinin on Giardia lamblia morphology and cell cycle in vitro Author : Roshni Nepal. Phylum - Sacrcomastigophora. Sub - phylum - Mastigophora. Class - Flagellata. Genus - Giardia Species - lamblia Giardiasis is an infection of small intestine, caused by a microscopic parasite called Giardia lamblia (upto 20µm).Giardiasis spreads through contact with infected people, through ingestion of parasitic cyst in contaminated water and food

Video: Giardia Lamblia, Giardiasis, Lifecycle, Symptoms

LECTURE 11: Parasitology Introduction Flashcards | Quizlet

Giardia lamblia attachment force is insensitive to surface treatments. Eukaryot Cell 2006;5:781-783. 92.Hausen MA, de Oliveira RP, Gadelha AP, Campanati L, de Carvalho JJ, de Carvalho CL, Barbosa HS. Giardia lamblia: a report of drug effects under cell differentiation. Parasitol Res. 2009;105:789-796 Giardia lamblia in children and the child care setting: a review of the literature. J Paediatr Child Health. 1994 Jun. 30(3):202-9. . Escobedo AA, Almirall P, Alfonso M, Cimerman S, Rey S, Terry. Title: Giardia lamblia 1 Giardia lamblia. Causes Giardiasis in man especially children. Geog.Distribution cosmopolitan. Habitat duodenum, upper part of small intestine, bile ducts and gall bladder as trophozoites attached to the mucosa. D.H man R.H animals ; Infective stage the cyst. Mode of infection ; Contaminated food or water. Flies and. Giardia lamblia, also called Giardia intestinalis or Giardia duodenalis, is a single-celled organism that inhabits in the upper small intestine of humans and several other vertebrates .This parasite infects thousands of people all over the world and is the cause of Giardiasis, an infection characterized by asymptomatic presentation or acute and chronic manifestations including diarrhea and.

Giardia lamblia trophozoite motility from stool of 10 year old boy. You can appreciate falling leaf motility and characteristic morphology under wet mount Giardia lamblia, also known as Giardia intestinalis, Giardia duodenalis, Lamblia duodenalis or Lamblia intestinalis, is a flagellated protozoan parasite that specifically infects the small intestines of its host. It has a distinct characteristic of resembling an 'old man with eyeglasses' or a 'monkey face'

Morphology Trophozoite Giardia lamblia cyst The specific mechanisms of Giardia pathogenesis leading to diarrhea and intestinal malabsorption are not completely understood and no specific virulence factors have been identified. Attachment of trophozoites to the brush border could produce a mechanical irritation or mucosal injury Giardia lamblia Morphology • Two forms: • Trophozoite (or vegetative form) • Cyst (or cystic form). Trophozoite • A tennis racket (heart-shaped or pyriform shaped) • Anteriorly- rounded; Posteriorly- pointed • Dorsally - convex and ventrally - concave • 15 µm x 9 µm wide and 4 µm thick. Giardia lamblia is a flagellar parasite possessing the unusual morphology of bearing two nuclei. New morphological observations on trophozoites and encysting Giardia nuclei using routine transmission electron microscopy, freeze fracture and cytochemistry are presented. Nuclear pores of both nuclei in the same cells were assessed on freeze-fracture replicas from different cell cycle phases, and. The intestinal diplomonadid Giardia lamblia is a causative agent of persistent diarrhea in humans and various animal species [1,2,3,4].Currently, chemotherapy of giardiasis is mostly based on nitro drugs, in particular metronidazole [5,6,7], with nitazoxanide as a potential alternative [].The prevailing model implies that electrons provided by pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) reduce.

The intestinal diplomonadid Giardia lamblia is a causative agent of persistent diarrhea. Current treatments are based on nitro drugs, especially metronidazole. Nitro compounds are activated by reduction, yielding toxic intermediates. The enzymatic systems responsible for this activation are not completely understood. By fractionating cell free crude extracts by size exclusion chromatography. Giardia are a group of flagellated unicellular protists which are the most common infective parasites of a number of vertebrates. For example, G. lamblia is a common human parasite. In the United States, about 20,000 cases of giardisis are reported each year [].Aside from being a prevalent pathogen, in the last two decades G. lamblia has caught a lot of attentions, as being the most primitive. The cytotoxicity of ciprofloxacin was investigated in culture of Giardia lamblia (ATCC 30957), used as an in vitro cellular model, on the basis of cell growth, morphology, viability, adherence and metabolic studies. The effects on cell membrane integrity were evaluated by permeability of the cells t Giardia lamblia, intestinalis o duodenalis es un protozoo flagelado perteneciente al orden Diplomonadida. Es parásito de varios mamíferos, incluyendo el ser humano. Vive en el intestino delgado y provoca una patología denominada giardiosis, giardiasis o lambliasis

Giardia lamblia (G. intestinalis, G. duodenalis ..

Exposure of trophozoites to peptides frequently resulted in cell aggregation and dramatic changes in morphology. The mechanism of binding and lysis appeared to involve charge interactions, since 150 mM NaCl as well as millimolar levels of Ca2+ and Mg2+ inhibited killing by most of the peptides. Our studies show that G. lamblia is sensitive to. Giardia lamblia LIN, WEN-YANG (WESLEY), Ph.D Giardia lamblia (=G. intestinalis, =G. duodenalis) also called Giardia duodenalis, Giardia intestinalis and pear-shaped flagellate is a common and well-known anaerobic flagellated protozoan parasites colonize in human (or in canine) small intestines and cause diarrhea, stomach pain etc. Its character of parasitic zoonoses make them also infecting.

Giardia lamblia - Coggle Diagram: Giardia lamblia (Life cycle Life-cycle-of-Giardia-lamblia-Infection-begins-by-oral-uptake-of-cysts-which-excyst-in , Laboratory Diagnosis, Pathogenesis, Treatment, Morphology, Habitat Title: Giardia lamblia 1 Giardia lamblia Source http//soils.cses.vt.edu Dr. Bimal Kumar Das Department of Microbiology All India Institute of Medical Scinces New Delhi-29 2 The genus Giardia belongs to the class Zoomastigophorea, the order Diplomonadida, and the family Hexamitidae. It is one of the most primitive eukaryotes it has a small subuni Giardia cyst-like objects detected by immunofluorescence in chlorinated water samples often cannot be positively identified by their morphological appearance. To determine the effect of chlorine on cyst immunofluorescence and morphology, Giardia lamblia cysts were exposed to chlorine for 48 h Giardia Lamblia. 5 likes · 2 talking about this. parasitologí Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases: Giardia Lamblia Causal agent Giardia lamblia (G. intestinalis, G. duodenalis), a flagellate protozoan1. Common clinical features Varies from asymptomatic (approximately 25% of acute infections) to severe diarrhoea with malaise, flatulence, foul smelling greasy stools, abdominal cramps, bloating, nausea and anorexia2

Giardia Morphology

Digication ePortfolio :: Giardia Lamblia by Alexander Garrison at Mercy College-Main Campus. Most people see pictures of me, and instantly think that I am a gram negative bacterita. Which is fair! Blue is my favorite color. However I can sometimes be both gram positive and gram negative. So when staining me, it would be best to use a a trichrome stain to identif Habitat. Giardia lamblia lives in two distinctly different habitats in its life depending on what part of the life cycle it is in. First would be the trophozoite (vegetative) form found in the fecal contaminated soils, streams, ponds and other sources of water worldwide (Mayo Clinic 2014) Keister DB. Axenic culture of giardia lamblia in TYI-S-33 medium supplemented with bile. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1983;77:487-8. Beal CB, Viens P, Grant RG, Hughes JM. A new technique for sampling duodenal contents. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1970;19:349-52. Korman SH, Hais ED, Spira DT. Routine in vitro cultivation of giardia lamblia by using the. Several anti-Giardia drugs, such as metronidazole, tinidazole, mebendazole, albendazole and furazolidone, are usually effective but have severe side effects and potential toxicity. An urgent need exists for more effective and less toxic agents that can act against this protozoan. For this purpose, the effects of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) on Giardia lamblia were investigated in vitro Giardia lamblia (Giardia duodenalis) causes Giardiasis or Lambliasis. History. Giardia lamblia was discovered in 1681 by Anton van Leeuwenhoek on examination of his own stool. The first description of giardia was written by secretary Robert Hooke of the Royal Society of London

Immunofluorescence and morphology of Giardia lamblia cysts

Giardia lamblia: A parasite responsible for a contagious form of diarrhea. The parasite is most commonly transmitted through direct contact with infected feces or by eating food or drinking water contaminated by feces. Giardia is one of the most common intestinal parasites in the world. The disease is most prevalent in developing countries. Giardia is a microscopic parasite that causes the diarrheal illness known as giardiasis.Giardia (also known as Giardia intestinalis, Giardia lamblia, or Giardia duodenalis) is found on surfaces or in soil, food, or water that has been contaminated with feces (poop) from infected humans or animals.. Giardia is protected by an outer shell that allows it to survive outside the body for long. Summary. Giardiasis is a common parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Giardia lamblia.Transmission usually occurs via the fecal-oral route (e.g., from contaminated drinking water) when traveling or living in an endemic region. Giardia live in two states: as active trophozoites in the human body and as infectious cysts surviving in various environments Struttura. Il ciclo vitale di Giardia lamblia prevede l'alternanza di due forme, una quiescente e una vegetativa (), durante la quale, attraverso un paio di ventose si ancora all'organismo ospite.La riproduzione è scissipara e avviene all'interno dell'intestino dell'ospite. Struttura delle cisti. La forma quiescente, presente in cibo e acqua contaminati da materia fecale ma anche in torrenti.

Giardiasis is an infection in your small intestine. It's caused by a microscopic parasite called Giardia lamblia. Giardiasis spreads through contact with infected people Giardia Lamblia is a tiny single-celled parasite with a whip-like tail. It infects the GI tract of humans and many other mammals. Visit the COVID-19 health center. Giardia Lamblia: A-to-Z Guide from Diagnosis to Treatment to Prevention

1- Giardia Lamblia(it Causes: Giardiasis) This Parasite Infects The Children More PPT. Presentation Summary : 1- Giardia lamblia(It causes: Giardiasis) This parasite infects the children more than the bigger people. Morphology: It exists in 2 forms. Trophozoite (o Giardiasis, also known as beaver fever, is caused by an infection with the gastrointestinal parasite, Giardia lamblia. This parasite was first discovered by the Father of the Microscope, Antoine van Leeuwenhoek, and later described by and named after Alfred Mathieu Giard and Vilém Dušan Lambl. G. lamblia is considered a strict anaerobe, surviving in environments that lac

Giardia: Introduction, morphology, Life cycle

Infection with Giardia lamblia causes a chronic diarrheal disease called giardiasis that is characterized by steatorrhea (fatty stools), abdominal cramps, bloating, frequent loose stools, fatigue and weight loss. Reactive arthritis is a common complication after a severe and chronic episode of giardiasis Giardiasis is a diarrheal illness caused by the parasite Giardia intestinalis (also known as Giardia lamblia or Giardia duodenalis). A parasite is an organism that feeds off of another to survive. Giardiasis is a global disease. It infects nearly 2% of adults and 6% to 8% of children in developed countries worldwide The nucleolus is the major site of ribosome biogenesis in eukaryotes. Until recently, G. lamblia was considered the only eukaryote lacking nucleoli. Recently, light and electron microscopy cytochemical techniques have been used to demonstrate the presence of nucleoli in the interphase nucleus of G. lamblia. Here we review the work made during the last few years on the nucleolus of G. lamblia.

Giardia lamblia is capable of causing asymptomatic contamination or spectral diseases, and infections range from acute to chronic, with clinical symptoms such as acute watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, maladaptation syndrome, and weight loss among both infants and children [6 Betancourt WQ, Duarte DC, Vásquez RC, Gurian PL. Cryptosporidium. Giardia lamblia has a characteristic tear-drop shape and measures 10-15 µm in length. It has twin nuclei and an adhesive disk which is a rigid structure reinforced by supelicular microtubules. There are two median bodies of unknown function, but their shape is important for differentiating between species Giardia lamblia is a parasite possessing a complex cytoskeleton and an unusual morphology of bearing two nuclei. Here, the interphasic nuclei of trophozoites, using field emission scanning electron microscopy, routine scanning and transmission electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry, and 3D reconstruction, are presented. An approach using plasma-membrane extraction allowed the observation of.

Giardia lamblia: Life Cycle, Diseases and laboratory

  1. al gassy distention Does NOT have: -blood in stool-increased PMN leukocytes in stool-fever 2. Chronic
  2. Immunofluorescence and morphology of Giardia lamblia cysts exposed to chlorine. Total genomic DNA probe to detect Giardia lamblia. Excystation of in vitro-derived Giardia lamblia cysts. Therapeutic enhancement of newly derived bacteriocins against Giardia lamblia
  3. Nov 22, 2015 - Explore Parasitology Journal's board Giardia lamblia, followed by 449 people on Pinterest. See more ideas about Giardia lamblia, Giardiasis, Medical laboratory science
  4. Giardia is one of the most common intestinal parasites in the world (13).There are estimates that there may be as many as 2.5 million cases each year of Giardia intestinalis in the US alone (6).A single-celled protozoa, the parasite also poses a serious threat abroad, and exists at very high prevalence rates particularly in places with poor water sanitation
  5. PATHOGEN SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT. NAME: Giardia lamblia. SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Giardia intestinalis, Giardia duodenalis Footnote 1, Giardiasis Footnote 1, Footnote 2, Giardia enteritis, Lambliasis, lamblia intestinalis, beaver fever.. CHARACTERISTICS: G. lamblia is a flagellated enteric protozoan parasite Footnote 1
Giardia Lamblia Life Cycle | Bruin Blog

SUMMARY Giardia lamblia is a common cause of diarrhea in humans and other mammals throughout the world. It can be distinguished from other Giardia species by light or electron microscopy. The two major genotypes of G. lamblia that infect humans are so different genetically and biologically that they may warrant separate species or subspecies designations This review focuses primarily on the biology of Giardia lamblia [G. duodenalis] and deals relatively little with the clinical aspects of giardiasis and the host-parasite interaction. The classification and evolution of Giardia species as well as its biochemistry and metabolism are described. Cell and molecular biology, genetics, surface antigens and antigenic variation are discussed

Giardia Lamblia - Clinical Lab Scienc

Giardia Lamblia. Synonyms: Cercomonas intestinalis, Lamblia intestinalis, Giardia intestinalis, Megastoma entericum, Giardia enterica. European writers still call this species Giardia intestinalis, but there was so much confusion about the availability of the specific names intestinalis and enterica that Stiles (1915) established the present name Giardia lamblia, also called G. intestinalis, single-celled parasite of the order Diplomonadida.Like those of other diplomonads, the cells of G. lamblia have two nuclei and eight flagella. The parasite attaches to human intestinal mucosa with a sucking organ, causing the diahrreal condition known as giardiasis. Acute giardiasis is a common disease among hikers, campers, and travelers to.

(PDF) Morphological descriptive study of giardia lamblia

Giardiasis is caused by the flagellate protozoan Giardia intestinalis (formerly known as G lamblia) . Infection is transmitted through ingestion of infectious G lamblia cysts. [ 35 ] The organism is known to have multiple strains with varying abilities to cause disease, and several different strains may be found in one host during infection caused by Giardia duodenalis, which is also called G. intestinalis. Both names are in current use, although the validity of the name G. intestinalis depends on the interpretation of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Two older names for the organism, Giardia lamblia and Lamblia intestinalis, are no longe Fact 1: Infection with Giardia lamblia is one of the most common causes of waterborne nonbacterial and nonviral diarrheal disease. G.lamblia (syn. intestinalis, duodenalis) is a zoonotic enteroparasite.It proliferates in an extracellular and noninvasive fashion in the small intestine of vertebrate hosts, causing the diarrheal disease known as giardiasis A recent study has reported that Giardia lamblia cysts have the ability to repair their UV-damaged DNA ex vivo after exposure to a UV fluence of 1 mJ cm −2 radiation based on both a gerbil infectivity assay and measurement of pyrimidine dimer formation by an endonuclease sensitive site assay (Shin et al., 2005)

Giardia duodenalis - Wikipedi

Structure of Giardia Lamblia (With Diagram) Zoolog

INTRODUCTION. Giardia lamblia, a common gastrointestinal parasite of humans and animals, is usually cultured axenically in a complex medium (TYI-S-33) (), which is toxic to mammalian cells and cultured mammalian cell lines (MCLs).Although Giardia trophozoites show no observable morphological changes for a limited time in cell culture media, after a few hours their cellular integrity becomes. Giardiasis (Giardia lamblia) is a parasite responsible for a common form of infectious diarrhea.The parasite lives in two stages: trophozoites and cysts. People at risk for giardiasis are those that live in areas where there is inadequate sanitation or treatment of drinking water

Giardia - Classification, Cell Biology, Life Cycle and

Giardia lamblia is a waterborne protozoan that infects the intestinal tract. Transmission occurs through the fecal-oral route, which is favored by substandard sanitation conditions and overcrowding. In developed countries, the estimated global distribution ranges from 2% to 7% of the population, but it can reach up to 30% of the population living in low-income countries [] Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan parasite that colonizes and reproduces in the small intestine, causing giardiasis. It occurs classically in campers and hikers who present with bloating, flatulence, and a foul-smelling, fatty diarrhea after drinking water contaminated with Giardia cysts.Metronidazole is the drug of choice for giardiasis. Gut IgA, secreted by plasma cells, protects. Giardiasis is an infection mainly of the small intestine caused by the parasite Giardia lamblia. Giardiasis has been reported in humans and in a variety of animals. To prevent infection wash hands thoroughly and don't drink untreated water

Biology of Giardia lamblia Clinical Microbiology Review

  1. Specific antibodies against Giardia lamblia in 92 sera from asymptomatic carriers were investigated by ELISA. Using cyst antigen, antibodies were detected in 91 of the sera, by means of alkaline phosphatase-labelled antispecies immunoglobulin. The E/405nm values of the positive sera ranged between 0·350 and 1·700, whereas in the 78 control.
  2. Giardia lamblia is the protozoan organism that causes the disease Giardiasis,... giardia protozoan, artwork - giardia lamblia stock illustrations. nitazoxanide antiprotozoal drug, molecular model - giardia lamblia stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images
  3. About Giardia lamblia {#about-giardia-lamblia .first}. Giardia lamblia belong to the taxonomica group excavates and it is flagellated protozoan parasite that colonizes and reproduces in the small intestine, causing giardiasis.. Taxonomy ID 184922. Data source GiardiaDB. More information and statistic
  4. Full explained Giardia lamblia in easy ways.You can make your own notes by understanding the giardia lamblia full topic. Topic Include-- *Introduction to Giardia Lamblia *Morphology of Giardia.
  5. Giardia lamblia (also known as Giardia intestinalis) has a characteristic tear-drop shape and measures 10-15 µm in length. It has twin nuclei and an adhesive disk which is a rigid structure reinforced by supelicular microtubules. There are two median bodies of unknown function, but their shape is important for differentiating between species..
  6. al discomfort with diarrhea. In addition, it may lead to chronic diarrhea associated with villous atrophy and impaired epithelial barrier in the small.
  7. ated water or, less commonly, food or through direct fecal-oral contact. The cyst is relatively inert, allowing prolonged survival in a variety of environmental conditions
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